Semmelweis Egyetem, I. Sz. Patológiai és Kísérleti Rákkutató Intézet, Budapest
Epigenetics is concerned with the modulation of the genom without structural changes in the nucleotide-sequence. The main target in the regulation of epigenetical activity is gene expression. The main mechanisms in epigenetics the reversible chemical modulation of the DNA and the histones which are regulated by enzyme-complexes, acting directly with the metabolism and the signaling pathways, as well as with the sensors of macro- and microenvironment. New members of the epigenetical family are the non-coding RNAs (e.g. microRNA). The misregulation of these components can inﬂuence the tumors at different stages of growth and progression. Several inhibitory anticancer drugs (e.g. azacytidine, decitabin, vorinostat, romidepsin, belinostat) are used in the clinical targeted therapy.